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ハミルトンの母の1人目の夫、Johann Michael Lavienとは






レイチェルの1人目の夫はJohann Michael Lavien(以下、ジョアン)でした。wikipediaによれば、彼は商人であり農園主だったようです。


Johann Michael Lavien (or John Lavien) (c. 1717 – February 28, 1771) was a merchant and planter who lived on the Caribbean islands of Nevis and Saint Croix.
Johann Michael Lavien(wikipedia)





As a young man “who had peddled household goods and now aspired to planter status“, Lavien moved from Nevis, an island in the British West Indies, to St. Croix in the Danish Virgin Islands. On St. Croix, Lavien purchased a sugar plantation (later known as Estate Ruby), and by 1744, he had established himself as a planter and cultivated the appearance of wealth.
From 1748 to 1760, he owned at least sixteen slaves, including 5 to 7 children. After incurring significant debts, Lavien sold his last remaining plantation in 1753, after which he worked his slaves on the properties of other planters. In 1761, Lavien moved to Frederiksted, on the opposite side of St. Croix, where he speculated in real estate, and had some income from renting out his remaining slaves. By 1768, a steep decline in his fortunes had left him working as a hospital janitor in Frederiksted.
Johann Michael Lavien(wikipedia)




結婚したのは1745年とのことなので、ジョアンが農園主として生計を立てていた頃でしょう。ハミルトンは後にジョアンのことを“a fortune hunter … bedizened with gold(成功を追い求めて、金で下品に着飾る奴)”と言っていたようですが、こういったジョアンの見栄っ張りで派手な服装はレイチェルの母(未亡人だった)を勘違いさせ、レイチェルは望まない結婚をすることになります。つまり、レイチェルの母親はジョアンが金持ちだと外見から判断して、娘の結婚を強く勧めたのでしょう。これが不幸の始まりですね…。


In 1745, Lavien met and married Rachel Faucette, then sixteen years old. Her mother, Mary Uppington Faucette, was British, and her father John was a French Huguenot physician who had recently died. Shortly before the marriage, Rachel had inherited what her son Alexander Hamilton would later call “a snug fortune“. Hamilton characterized Lavien as “a fortune hunterbedizened with gold” whose expensive clothes caused Rachel’s widowed mother to be “captivated by the glitter” of his flashy appearance, and to push Rachel into reluctantly agreeing to what became a “hated marriage”.
Johann Michael Lavien(wikipedia)



ジョアンとレイチェルの間には1746年に息子のピーターが生まれましたが、レイチェルがもうこれ以上ジョアンと住むことは出来ないと言って家を出ると、彼は法に則って刑務所送りにしたそうです。そして数ヶ月の刑務所生活の後、レイチェルは2人目の夫、そしてハミルトンの父親となるJames Hamilton(以下、ジェイムス)に出会います。




Lavien and Rachel had one son, Peter, born in 1746. However, in 1750, Rachel refused to live with Lavien any longer, an offense for which Lavien had her jailed under Danish law. She spent several months in a 10 by 13 foot cell with one small window, in the Fort in Christiansted, St. Croix. Soon after being released, she fled to the British West Indies, where she met James Hamilton, fourth son of a Scottish laird. James Hamilton and Faucette moved together to her birthplace, Nevis, and had two sons together, James Jr. and Alexander.
Lavien divorced Rachel in 1759 on grounds of adultery and desertion, under Danish law, which left her legally unable to remarry. Possibly to spare her from charges of bigamy, James Hamilton abandoned Rachel and their sons in 1765. Soon afterward, Rachel moved with the boys to Christiansted.
After learning of Faucette’s death in 1768, Lavien used the 1759 divorce decree in probate court to prevent James Jr. and Alexander Hamilton from inheriting any of her property, due to their illegitimate birth. The entire estate went instead to his son Peter.
Johann Michael Lavien(wikipedia)






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